Here’s the thing about being pro choice that people don’t get…
You don’t have to morally agree with abortion to be pro choice. That’s why it’s not called pro abortion. It’s an understanding that you can’t make that choice for someone else and they have full control over that not you. It’s pro I’m not the boss of everyone else.

This is important.


caederemus asked:

Why aren't people/animals photosynthetic, even if just supplementarily? Or rather, since I know evolution is random, would it be advantageous for animals to be capable of photosynthesis? (Like, if instead of just having melatonin absorb light it acted in a fashion similar to - or was simply replaced by - chlorophyll)

molecularbiologistproblems answered:

This is a fascinating question. Thank you very much for asking it. I was a bit unsure of how to answer it until I really began thinking about it. I am not an evolutionary biologist, so I didn’t think I would be able to answer this without help from the literature, but the development of photosynthesis actually has very little to do with normal evolution we usually think of.

Chloroplasts are the endomembrane organelle capable of turning solar energy into glucose via photosynthesis by splitting water molecules and consuming atmospheric carbon dioxide through a chain of proteins, starting with the photoaystems. The rest of the enzymes aren’t really necessary to discuss to answer this question, but what is necessary to point out is that unlike most endomembrane organelles, chloroplasts contain their own genetic material that is separate from the DNA inside the planet cell’s nucleus. Mitochondria also have their own genetic material. This one of the convincing pieces of evidence for the biological theory of endosymbiosis.

Endosymbiotic theory is strongly supported and widely accepted by biologists. It states that chloroplasts and mitochondria were most likely prokaryotic organisms that were engulfed by early eukaryotic ancestors that then co-evolved to create the most primative eukaruotic cells that then evolved into plant and animal cells. After billions of years of evolution, endomembrane organelles are no longer capable of living outside of a eukaryote.

So basically, the answer to your question of why animals don’t photosynthesize is because the eukaryotic ancestors of modern animal cells did not engulf chloroplasts, or if they did, they did not keep them and co-evolve through a symbiotic relationship. It has nothing to do with random evolution because genomic DNA (the stuff inside the DNA of every eukaryotic cell) does not contain information about photosynthesis. Most of that information is stored in the individual chloroplast, which will transcribe mRNA transcripts on its own. It is rather interesting and noteworthy, however, that some of the mitochondria DNA (mDNA) has been discovered in genomic DNA. This is a separate phenomenon, though.

ALSO, since mDNA (and chloroplast DNA, but this isn’t too relevant since some plants are asexual, anyways, but I’m sure it’s important to plant phylogenists) are not completely incorporated into the eukarytoic genome, your mDNA is not 50% from each parent like your genomic DNA is! mDNA is actually maternally inherited because mitochondria are in the oocyte. Yes, sperm need mitochondria to propel their flagella through the vas deferns, urethra, vagina, uterus, and finally, fallopian tubes to reach the oocyte, but when the membrane around the oocyte is penetrated by a sperm cell, the mitochondria in the sperm are not incorporated into the oocyte, so your mother’s mitochondria are the only ones left to remain in the developing embryo. For this reason we can track maternal lineage using mDNA!

Now, onto the final part of your question, which I am really excited you asked about. Melatonin is a molecule produced by both the pineal gland; melanin is actually the pigment synthesized by your skin cells in response to sunlight to protect you from harmful UV radiation. Both melanin and melatonin are produced in a light-dependent manner, which means they are produced when photosensitive cells are stimulated by sunlight, just as photosynthesis is initiated by sunlight (in most plants - there are exceptions). Chlorophyll, carotene, etc. are pigments that capture solar energy for photosynthesis. Melanin is also a pigment (the more you have, the darker you are, e.g. Europeans have been exposed to far less sunlight than Africans, so there is a difference in skin color, which is why racism is stupid…the amount of melanin in your skin doesn’t make you more or less of a human being…), but it does not store energy to be used for photosynthesis; it just protects your DNA from mutagenic UV rays.

Now, back to melatonin really quick. The pineal gland secretes melatonin when it is day light. Throughout the day, melatonin builds up, which is one of the mechanisms that make you tired, hence why most people sleep at night, after melatonin has reached its peak. This is an example of a negative feedback loop (which I encourage you to send me an ask about!). Melatonin supplements are used to help people fall asleep for this reason. (Side note: another mechanism that makes us tired is the break down of ATP, the major energy source for the cell. Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist, which means it stops adenosine from making you tired.)

Onto what if animals were photosynthetic? Well, it would certainly solve the problem of world hunger, but not eating actual food would deprive our body of vital vitamins, minerals, etc. that are necessary for body functions. The other issue would be that we would all become diabetic. Why? Because we would still have the urge to eat even though our glucose supply is being satisfied by photosynthesis. Ghrelin and orexin are two hormones that regulated food consumption. The acts of putting food in your mouth, chewing, food traveling down the esophagus, and food entering your stomach are mechanisms by which hunger is regulated.

By simply relying on photosynthesis to provide our energy needs, we would not only become malnourished, but we would still always be hungry, which would result in overeating, obesity, etc. The excessive glucose intake from photosynthesis and eating would overwork your pancreas to create insulin, which would eventually create an insulin tolerance (aka diabetes mellitus type II). Not to mention, only the exterior cells of the body would be able to photosynthesize. Leaves are thin enough that light can penetrate all the cells. Any internal cells of the animal’s body wouldn’t be exposed to light, and, consequently, would not be able to photosynthesize.

I think I hit all the points of your question (and then some, hah). If I missed anything or you would like me to clarify, please send me another ask! ^_^

Xoxo, molecularbiologistproblems



Also regarding the bits about nutrition. Because plants have roots which let them get their minerals and nitrogen and such. But, I do have one addition about the internal parts of the plant. After all, not all parts of plants do photosynthesize (roots, cells inside the trunks of trees) and so plants have developed their own circulation that allows water and minerals to get from the roots to the rest of the plant and the glucose from the leaves to the other parts. It is actually pretty nifty, since unlike out circulatory system, it doesn’t have a pump (aka we have a heart) to drive it, so it is mostly done by adhesion of water molecules driven by evaporation through the leaves iirc. And trees can get SUPER tall, too, so think about how AMAZINGLY set up that all it. 

The reason leaves are thin, iirc, is to maximize the available surface area for photosynthesis with the least amount of expenditure, rather than to allow light to penetrate all the cells. It is sort of like how our intestines have microvilli to increase surface area for absorption, but just another strategy based on what their resource it. Because  (1) microvilli might make little shadows on each other and thus might not be the best way to gather light and (2) since these are external structures, they aren’t limited by space the same way the inside of our intenstines are.

Yes! Very good points, thank you! I completely forgot about nitrogen fixation. However, we consume a lot of nitrogen through protein and the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, so we would probably figure out some nitrogen fixation process if we became photosynthetic.

Since her death in 1979, the woman who discovered what the universe is made of has not so much as received a memorial plaque. Her newspaper obituaries do not mention her greatest discovery. […] Every high school student knows that Isaac Newton discovered gravity, that Charles Darwin discovered evolution, and that Albert Einstein discovered the relativity of time. But when it comes to the composition of our universe, the textbooks simply say that the most abundant atom in the universe is hydrogen. And no one ever wonders how we know.

Jeremy Knowles, discussing the complete lack of recognition Cecilia Payne gets, even today, for her revolutionary discovery. (via alliterate)


Cecilia Payne’s mother refused to spend money on her college education, so she won a scholarship to Cambridge.

Cecilia Payne completed her studies, but Cambridge wouldn’t give her a degree because she was a woman, so she said fuck that and moved to the United States to work at Harvard.

Cecilia Payne was the first person ever to earn a Ph.D. in astronomy from Radcliffe College, with what Otto Strauve called “the most brilliant Ph.D. thesis ever written in astronomy.”

Not only did Cecilia Payne discover what the universe is made of, she also discovered what the sun is made of (Henry Norris Russell, a fellow astronomer, is usually given credit for discovering that the sun’s composition is different from the Earth’s, but he came to his conclusions four years later than Payne—after telling her not to publish).

Cecilia Payne is the reason we know basically anything about variable stars (stars whose brightness as seen from earth fluctuates). Literally every other study on variable stars is based on her work.

Cecilia Payne was the first woman to be promoted to full professor from within Harvard, and is often credited with breaking the glass ceiling for women in the Harvard science department and in astronomy, as well as inspiring entire generations of women to take up science.

Cecilia Payne is awesome and everyone should know her.

(via bansheewhale)




This Icelandic police force has the most adorable Instagram account 

Meet the Reykjavík Metropolitan Police, serving the capital of Iceland. By the looks of their incredible Instagram account, a normal day includes holding kittens, eating candy and wearing false mustaches.

There’s more where those came from | Follow micdotcom

For the record the Icelandic police are probably the best police force in the world, There has only been one instance where an officer shot and killed a civilian in the entire history of the country (which is nearly a hundred years) and everyone was completely devastated by it, the police especially — because, as made clear in their statements after the incident, they understand their function is to protect the people. Not to mention that their general police go unarmed except for special squads.

Let’s run through some more facts while we’re on the subject: Compared to 31,000+ shooting deaths in the US in 2009, Iceland had… 4, because they have very rigorous screening processes for gun permits. There is very little economic disparity between upper, middle and lower classes, and social welfare programs take care of their people. Drug use affects less than 1% of the population between 15 and 65 years old, and 90% of drug-related court cases are settled with a fine rather than jail time. Violent crime is virtually non-existent. [x]

Iceland is like if you took the entire idea of chill and personified it as an country, and this exemplifies that.